Friday, May 22, 2020
In school we learn many things, from what we read, see, and hear; but I believe that there are a few specific stories students should read while at the high school. One short story in particular Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ teaches a very important message to those who read it. In this short story we see a utopian society where everyone is exactly the same, but in the end teaches the reader that a society like that is horrible, and everyone should be themselves. In the society, people who are gifted, stronger, smarter, prettier, all need to wear a handicap that makes them Ã¢â¬Å"equalÃ¢â¬ to those who are more ordinary. I believe that being unique and an individual is an important lesson for students to learn, thus they should read Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ . AtÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is important, because if students are fighting the futile fight for normality, then they should hear this story, to take a look at a world where everyone was normal, and anybody who stuck out was shot down. If Ã¢â¬Å"He (Harrison Bergeron) is a genius and an athleteÃ¢â¬ ¦ (and regarded as extremely dangerousÃ¢â¬ (Vonnegut 3) Who would want to live in a world like that? If student take this message to heart, they will hopefully embrace abnormality and not let the current normality trend affect them from finding themselves, as that is what high school is for, (along with education) becoming the adult you will be for the rest of your life. In my life, I have seen plenty of friends and classmates, as well as myself who wanted to do one thing, but have done another due to peer pressure. They are all wonderful people by society is suppressing their greatness. Most importantly though, students should not compare grades and things similar to that, because nobody is the same and not everyone learns and works the same way, take me for example, I am not the best at history, but I do much better in geometry and biology, if you are a great artist and are average in geometry, you should not compare with me, or anyone else for that matter, because we are not the same people, with the same interests and values. If schools do not teach this, they still might talk toShow MoreRelatedReflection Of Harrison Bergeron1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthis semester we watched some pretty good movies and read some pretty interesting short stories. They three characters I chose to discuss are Royal Tenenbaum from the movie The Royal Tenenbaums, DJay from Hustle and Flow, and Harrison Bergeron from the short story Harrison Bergeron. The reason I chose these characters to write about was because they all had different struggles with their identity. Some were more obvious but some took a little bit of thought and discussion to fully understand the problemRead MoreHarrison Bergeron1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. is a story literally exaggerated to its limit by showing, in the near future, what it means to be equal in every way by having people not being able to show any form of intelligence or creativity whatsoever. When Harrison Bergeron breaks the chains of government oppression, he dies for his failed cause. He dies because he chooses not to conform to the rest of his oppressive society. His parents, George andRead More`` Harrison Bergeron `` By Kurt Vonnegut1875 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesyear 2081, and everybody was finally equal in every which way. Nobody was smarter than anybody else. Nobody was better looking than anybody else. Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody elseÃ¢â¬ (Vonnegut 864). In the futuristic short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ written by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. illustrates a government implemented law of equality forced upon a society. Vonnegut a social commentator utilizes satirical events in the st ory to illustrate irrational thoughts and ideas from society. Satire isRead MoreCharacter Analysis : Girl Of The Streets Essay1773 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesperson amazing, and no character in a story represents that more effectively than Harrison Bergeron in the Kurt Vonnegut Story by the same name. Maggie, in Maggie: Girl of the Streets is a premiere example of a character in a world where the individuality is pushed aside entirely. These two conflicting journeys represent the two possibilities for individuality in their similarly oppressive worlds. Harrison Bergeron shows us that no matter what actions are taken attempting to suppress individualityRead MoreLiterary Elements Of A Short Story1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas narrative or point of view, character, setting, tone, and style, theme, plot, and symbol. All of these literary elements are fundamental to write a short story, you cannot have one without the other. The short stories Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison B ergeronÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The Gift of the MagiÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Barn BurningÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"The ChrysanthemumsÃ¢â¬ are great examples of the distinct type of narrators. One of the most common narratives used to write a literary piece is participant narrator, in this type of narrative whereRead MoreAnalysis Of Shirley Jackson And Kurt Vonneguts The Lottery1788 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages1900s Shirley Jackson and Kurt Vonnegut published a number of fictional pieces in the United States. During this time, each addressed the existing struggle between the individual and society. Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ and Kurt VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ are two stories that depict the oppression an individual faces when pitted to society. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s piece in particular points to the danger of blind following, while VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s work addresses the danger in total equality. Through a number of means
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Court Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of JUST-1100-W02 Criminal Justice System Process Fall 2016 by Kelsey Maynard Table of Contents Court Overview District AttorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Office Six-Member Jury Session Twelve-Member Jury Session Traffic Court Sessions Criminal Court Sessions Victim-Witness Assistance Program Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 6-7 7 7-8 Court Overview Built during the summer of 2007, the new Worcester Trial Court was developed in downtown Main Street. This building is the first Comprehensive Justice Center to include all five of the trial court departments. These following five are the Superior, District, Juvenile, Housing, and Family Court. The building is the largest facility constructed ever by the state of Massachusetts. After going through the quick line of security and walking around on each level, I realized that there were twenty-six courtrooms, including the jury pool, Central Detention Area, District AttorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Office, and the Grand Jury Hearing Room. On the first floor, there is also a support services office in which has court clinics and a drop-off Child Care room. On all floors, there are bulletin boards with court and hearing times. While I was in the courtroom, I was able to experience great digital and video evidence presentations. During this Court House experience, I was able to visit two times within a week to visit, explore, listen to cases, and be able toShow MoreRelatedInvestigation Of The Criminal Justice Essay1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe overview of the criminal justice, especially in America. The result from the interview of one of the fractioned for instance, the attorney in the criminal justice will be the cornerstone of this report. In this case, the AttorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s view about criminal justice will be thoroughly analyzed and compared with other sources to bring out the bright image of the criminal justice in America. The arguments of whether there is the efficient administration of the criminal justice system, their methodologiesRead More The Criminal Justice System Essay1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe criminal justice system is composed of three parts Ã¢â¬â Police, Courts and Corrections Ã¢â¬â and all three work together to protect an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and the rights of society to live without fear of being a victim of crime. According to merriam-webster.com, crime is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an act that is forbidden or omission of a duty that is commanded by public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law.Ã¢â¬ When all the three parts work together, it makes the criminal justice systemRead MoreThe United States Criminal Justice System1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStates Criminal Justice System is an extremely complex, but yet extremely important part of the United States. The criminal justice system is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the set of agencies and processes established by governments to control crime and impose penalties on those who violate laws). Although there are many different groups of people that make up the criminal justice system, the two main and most discussed the state division or the federal division. The state division of the criminal justice system dealsRead MoreThe Population Of The Us1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof children and youth in different classes will change accordingly. As the proportion of likable offenders rises, the juvenile justice system will display transformations in synchrony with it (OJJDP, n.d.). Criminal justice professionals explicate that demographics is not the only aspect that affects the juvenile delinquency and the operation of juvenile justice system. An additional factor is the migration of people from one state to another or influx and efflux of the people to or from the countryRead MoreCriminal Justice : It Has A Weak Social Control System For Our Safety882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbelieve that Criminal justice institution; it has a weak social control system for our safety, because they are some officers that abuse of their power against the civilians. This affect or impact our society in a large distance in a way that social control system donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a strong system to protect use as a United States citizen from some officers that donÃ¢â¬â¢t do their job in the right way. After knowing that criminal justice is the last line of defense some of them abuse their power. Criminal justiceRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Crime And Justice1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnnotated Bibliography on Crime and Justice Crime may simply be referred to as an offense against the state or against morality and is punishable by law, while justice is the fairness practiced during judgment of cases usually in instances where crime has taken place. Crime and justice go hand in hand as commonly evident in a case whereby a criminal is apprehended and taken to a court of law, then a ruling of justice practiced on the case and fairness used in passing of judgments. In most governmentsRead MoreCriminal Justice System and Process Essay1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesas Criminal Law (Law Library, 2011). Criminal law is also termed as Penal law, it comprises of rules as well as statutes that have been written by the Congress and the state legislators who deal with criminal activities (petty crimes, felonies or misdemeanors) that have a direct or indirect harm to the general public and is accompanied by penalties of these crimes, (Morrison, 2008). Criminal law is enforced by the government. Criminal law has sub-section s that include: Substantive Criminal LawRead MoreFraud Paper1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesembezzlement case in civil court and criminal court, and 2) discuss the role of an expert witness/fraud examiner in each proceeding. There are two major factions of the United States court system: civil cases and criminal cases. Both take place in courtrooms all across the country, but there are several differences that separate the two as well as the role of fraud examiner in each proceeding. The major difference of the two in an embezzlement case is: 1) In a criminal court case, the opposing partiesRead MoreThe Juvenile Justice System And Juveniles1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe criminal justice system and juveniles, there have been many landmark cases that have made a significant impact on the juvenile justice system. The cases arise from dealing with certain aspects that comes from handling juveniles entering the system. Since juveniles are very different from adults they have to deal with them a certain way and a case by case basis. The court cases concerning juveniles and the decisions that have come from them is what has made what the juvenile justice system is todayRead MoreThe Effectiveness of the Criminal Justice System in Dealing with Young Offenders1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAustralia Criminal Process. Including the introduction of the theory known as Doli Incapax meaning the age of criminal reasonability, the Young Offender Act 1997 NSW as well new law regarding the rights of a child once they have been arrested. It is evident that these while some of charges are still ineffective in dealing with Young Offenders within the Criminal Justice System the majority of them are in place for the greater good and are assisting young offenders when it relates to the Criminal Justice
Saturday, May 9, 2020
The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Conditions- Emile Durkheim According to DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s work The Dualism of Human Nature and Its Social Conditions (DHN), a man has a dual nature which is made up of the body (individual) and the soul (social). He sheds light on this by citing post-Durkheim theories which he does not agree with and which do not solve the problem of this dual nature. Durkheim also uses The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (EFRL) to discuss the religious aspect of the body and soul. Upon reading, it is discovered that as society evolves, so does this Ã¢â¬Å"dual nature.Ã¢â¬ In DHN, Durkheim argues that sociology must examine what an individual consists of because it is a result of the whole society. It is this societyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There were also 2 other theories that attempted to explain this Ã¢â¬Å"dualism of human natureÃ¢â¬ : (1) The Ontological Explanation by Plato- manÃ¢â¬â¢s inward struggle consists of being Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ and being unethical. Plato says that Ã¢â¬Å"because we are par t of both, we are necessarily in conflict with ourselves.Ã¢â¬ (p.4) And a theory by Kant (2) Sensitivity and Reason- we have an ability to think individually or collectively. Durkheim feels that these 2 theories only re-state the problem it does not resolve it. They also assume that manÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is above explanation, but we should be able to explain it. Again, in EFRL, Durkheim shows religiosity from a sociological standpoint in which Ã¢â¬Å"individual consciousnessÃ¢â¬ is combined with Ã¢â¬Å"common consciousness.Ã¢â¬ To look at it another way, individuals use signs and symbols to interpret and/or explain their feelings. If the group all uses the same signs and symbols, it then becomes the symbol or representation of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s sacredness. Even if the individual is no longer part of the collective society, he still holds the sacredness of the signs/symbols to the same high standard, and he does this by way of festivals, ceremonies, etc. Also in DHN, DurkheimShow MoreRelatedIs Dualism Best? The Nature Of Consciousness? Essay1070 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBayne Dualism Best Explains the Nature of Consciousness The three theories we have discussed so far are the dualism theory of Plato and Descartes, the Aristotelian theory, and the Physicalism (identity) theory of Place and Strong. The identity of consciousness means that if you have the same consciousness, you are the same person, and if not conscience, you are not the same person. The thing that remains constant throughout all states of consciousness is that it is physically the same human beingRead MoreRealism : Reality And Dualism1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeena Lin PHI 1500 Fall 2017 Final Paper Reality is Dualism There are currently four major theories about the nature of reality and substanceÃ¢â¬â materialism/physicalism, idealism, transcendental idealism, and dualism. Materialism is the theory that there is only the physical and material world. Idealism takes the position that reality is made up of ideas and immaterial. Transcendental idealism holds the idea that our experience of things are shaped by how they appear to us and not by what they areRead MoreMedieval Vs. Renaissance Literature1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswas beyond human comprehension and it was regarded as GodÃ¢â¬â¢s preserve. With the Ã¢â¬Ësecond comingÃ¢â¬â¢ becoming extremely remote, middle age literature witnessed a significant shift and it stated focusing entirely on an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ afterlife. As such, Middle age literature appeared to be based on world of darkness versus heaven as it emphasized ultimate suffering of the bad souls and corresponding salvation for the good souls. Renaissance literature on t he other hand focused on the dual nature of body/soulRead MoreZombie Argument1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophy Essay (20 March 2013) RNTREF002 Essay topic three The important problems of the mind module are: how do we understand the nature of mental events, their relation to the physical world and physical events and fundamentally the problems with other minds. This essay essentially serves to evaluate whether the Zombie argument against Cartesian Dualism is sound by: criticising the Zombie argument through analysing the validity of each premise of the Zombie argument, defending the ZombieRead MoreEssay about Why Dualism is Rejected by Science 1549 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthere has been many different theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s that have been presented, in numerous fashions. From psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢s inception there has been attempts to answer many different questions, how much of our animal heritage exists, are humans basically good, is human nature neither good nor bad, do humans possess free will, is psychology really a science? There has been a persistent question throughout the ages, how are the mind and body related? This question of if there trul y is a mind, and if there is, how is it linkedRead MoreThe Theory Of The Mind Body Dualism1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaccording to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Ã¢â¬Å"was one of the first to abandon scholastic Aristotelianism and created the first version of the modern mind-body dualism or emotionÃ¢â¬ (Encyclopedia Britannica). Born on March 31, 1596, he was dubbed as the Father of Modern Philosophy. His theory on the mind-body dualism, also known as Cartesian Dualism, created a stem of the modern problem of the relationship between the mind and body. He created the early version to further explain the interaction of theRead MoreDualism And The Mind Body Problem Essay1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDualism and the Mind-Body Problem The mind is perhaps the most fascinating part of the human body due to its complexity and ability to rationalize. In essence, the mind-body problem studies the relation of the mind to the body, and states that each human being seems to embody two unique and somewhat contradictory natures. Each human contains both a nature of matter and physicality, just like any other object that contains atoms in the universe. However, mankind also is constituted of something beyondRead MoreDualism And Belief That The Mind And Brain Essay1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMoreland in his argument for dualism, he states that humans are composed of both an immaterial substance and a physical substance. Moreland notes that there are contrasting differences between the minds and the brains and that they are ultimately separate entities. By defending dualism, Moreland seeks to make nonbelievers believe in immaterial souls, while discrediting materialism. We can look at the arguments in which Moreland uses to s upport the argument of dualism and belief that the mind andRead MoreExploring the Different Theories Involved in the Mind and Body Problem1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinteract. One way is Dualism In philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of beliefs which begins with the claim that the mental and the physical have a fundamentally different nature. Dualism has been the driving force behind the mind-body problem and has been by far the majority view until recently partially due to the influence of Descartes he claimed that the pineal gland was the interface between the mind and the rest of the brain. Whether Dualism is correct one way to explainRead MoreCartesian Dualism And The Body Essay1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthought about what the mind is? How is the mind connected to the body? Are they two separate things or are the body and the mind the same thing? There are different theories to answer these questions. A philosopher, Descarte, believes in Cartesian Dualism, which is that the mind and body both exist, but are two distinct things: physical stuff and mental stuff. The mind is not located in physical space and is an immaterial soul, whereas the body is a physical being and these two things are separate
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Five other gene disorder that contributes to autism are (1) EN2 (Engrailed 2) involved in cerebellum development. (2) GABR (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Receptor) regulates brain cell migration. (3) OXTR (Oxytocin Receptor) participating in the response to stress and social skills. (4) RELN (Reelin) involved in neuronal migration in the developing brain. (5) SLC6A4, a serotonin transporter geneÃ¢â¬ (Johnson, Giarelli, Lewis, Rice, 2013). As a result of all the researches done several chromosomal loci have been shown to be linked to Autistic Spectrum disorder including those at 2q24-2q31, 7q22-7q31, 7q34-7q36, and 17q11-17q21. Structural chromosomal changes involving deletions and duplication at 7q11, 15q11-15q13, 17p11.2, 22q11.2, and 22q13 have also been associated with forms of autism. However, the most common chromosomal abnormalities currently associated with autism include the fragile X mutation, other sex chromosome abnormalities, and abnormalities of 15q11-q13. Ã¢â¬Å"Evidenc e has shown that duplications of 15q11Ã¢â¬âq13 have led to higher risks of Autism Spectrum Disorder and developmental and cognitive deÃ¯ ¬ citsÃ¢â¬ (Flashner, Russo, Boileau, Leong, Gallicano, 2013). Chromosome 15q11-q13.1 region is subject to genomic imprinting, which is an epigenetic process that results in monoallelic gene expression. Duplications lead to autism and are usually maternal in origin. Deletion of the maternal allele of chromosome 15q11-q13 cause Angelman syndrome (AS) a neurodevelopmental disorderShow MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that is characterized by abnormalities relating to social, behavioral, cognitive and language skills. The genetic architecture of ASD is comprised of a variety of rare mutations. These mutations include monogenic conditions involving autistic symptoms. Furthermore, single nucleotide variants and de novo copy number variants add to disease susceptibility. Inherited Factors Related to ASDs Autosomal recessive loci areRead MoreA Research Study On Autistic Spectrum Disorder802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof ASD dates back to the year 1908 when the word autism was first used to describe a subset of withdrawn schizophrenic patients. The word autism was then used again in 1943 when American child psychiatrist Leo Kanner, M.D., published a paper called Ã¢â¬Å"Autistic Disturbance of Affective ContactÃ¢â¬ describing eleven socially isolated children who displayed the same desire for sameness and aloneness describing their condition as early infantile autism (Autism Speaks, 2013). A year later German scientist namedRead More The Etiology of Autism Essay1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Etiology of Autism Autism is a syndrome that is characterized by the impairment of social interaction skills, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a decreased interest in participating in a variety of activities. In 1943, Kanner, the man who is attributed with the identification of this disease, hypothesized that autism might be a biological disorder as opposed to a psychological one. Numerous studies have been conducted supporting KannerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis. These studies have ranged from examiningRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Autism Spectrum Disorders ( Asd )949 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages 1. What are the characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? As described in the textbook, there is a broad range of characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). One of the first characteristics noted with ASD is language deficits, or using language in Ã¢â¬Å"oddÃ¢â¬ ways. As stated in the textbook, Ã¢â¬Å"Children with classic autism may be nonverbal. Alternatively, they may have significant language difficulties, so that their language may consist primarily of echolalia or delayedRead MoreEssay on Understanding Persons with Intellectual Disabilities1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages It is important to understand the terms that are associated with intellectual disabilities. The first term is disability. Disability is an individual performing which includes physical, sensory, cognitive, intellectual mental illness impairments, and various types of chronic diseases. The next term involves intelligence. This term is the ability to think logically, reason out problems, prepare, understand difficult ideas, examine intellect ually, and the ability to determine quickly and or acquireRead MoreEffects Of The Pregnancy On Children1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdecisions about their pregnancies. Nuchal translucency screening tests are used to determine the probability of the fetus having chromosomal abnormalities (GottfredsdÃ ³ttir, BjÃ ¶rnsdÃ ³ttir, Sandall, 2009). Due to these technological advancements, there have been many debates raised in regards to terminating or continuing with the pregnancy if tests indicate abnormalities. In this paper, I will discuss he mental effects of the mother in both abortion and continuing cases, the physical effects in bothRead MoreEssay about The Etiology of Autism1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof 1 in 110 children have an autism spectrum disorder, Ã¢â¬Å"ASDÃ¢â¬ (Nirv, Shah 2011). According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, up to six out of every 1,000 children may be diagnosed with some form of autism. In addition, boys are four times more likely than girls to have autism. This means that as many as 1.5 million Americans today are believed to have some form of autism. Unfortunately, the numbers appear to be increasing rapidly. Autism is a disability that frequentlyRead MoreThe Treatment Of Speech And Communication Disorders995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindividualized evaluation. Sensory integration is a common treatment program used by occupational therapists. To evaluate the outcomes of the patient, the occupational therapist ensures that the goals set are being met, and makes changes to the treatment plan if needed (AOTA, 2017). Occupational therapists treat a variety of diagnoses including, but not limited to, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Down syndrome is known as a chromosomal defect due to a full or partial extraRead MoreAutism Essay1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder Essay What is ASD? The term Autistic Spectrum Disorder covers a wide range of conditions, including autism and Asperger syndrome that are characterized by impaired social interaction, communication difficulties and restricted, stereotypical and repetitive activities and interests. Autistic spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that is usually diagnosed in childhood. Children and adults with this condition have a wide range of intelligence. Some have learning disabilitiesRead MoreDetecting Fetal Abnormalities Through Ultrasound2205 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDetecting Fetal Abnormalities Through Ultrasound Birth defects can have life threatening consequences for the fetus. Many birth defects can be detected during pregnancy by an ultrasound. Some of these abnormalities include abdominal wall defect, orofacial cleft, anencephaly, and down syndrome. Although at this time ultrasound is the safest way to observe a fetus, risks are still associated with it. Ultrasound An ultrasound is a test that sends sound waves into the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s abdomen
string(81) " is made up of extremes which he called vices of excess and vices of deficiency\." Virtue Ethics Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived between 384 and 322 BCE. He was deeply interested in the idea of cause and purpose. On the Foundation Paper, you will have explored the ideas of the Four Causes and the Prime Mover. We will write a custom essay sample on Virtue Ethics Notes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Both of these theories look at the idea of how things are caused and how they move towards their purpose. In ethics, any theory that looks at how we become better people over time, or that looks at how we move towards our purpose is called a teleological theory, from the Greek word telos meaning goal or purpose. Virtue ethics is teleological because it argues that we should practice being good, or virtuous people over time. Virtue ethics is therefore not deontological (like KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics) and it is also not normative. It is known as aretaic ethics from the Greek word arete meaning excellence or virtue. Virtue ethics is not concerned with what we ought to do, but with what kind of person we should try to become. Aristotle argued that every action we perform is directed towards some purpose, that it tries to achieve something. He then argued that there are superior and subordinate aims. Subordinate aims are what we have to achieve first, before we achieve superior aims, for example, if you are hungry (which might be a superior aim) you need to make a sandwich to achieve that aim. Making the sandwich becomes a subordinate aim. The aim of life Aristotle argued that the superior aim of human life is to achieve something called eudaemonia. Eudaemonia is a Greek word that roughly translates to mean Ã¢â¬ËhappinessÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËflourishingÃ¢â¬â¢. Aristotle argued that this is the aim that should govern our lives: the pursuit of happiness or pleasure. Eudaemonia is achieved when we become virtuous and Aristotle argued that this is a process that we grow towards by practising virtues. It is much like learning to play a musical instrument: the more you practise, the better you get. Some of you will have come across the word daemon before in the Ã¢â¬ËHis Dark MaterialsÃ¢â¬â¢ trilogy by Philip Pullman. All the characters in the books have daemons and Pullman says of them: Ã¢â¬Ëthe daemon is that part of you that helps you grow towards wisdom. Ã¢â¬â¢ Lyra, the central character in the trilogy has a daemon called Pantalaimon who is instrumental in helping her deal with situations wisely as the story progresses. [Pleasure] is also thought to be most important for the forming of a virtuous character to like and dislike the right things because pleasure and pain permeate the whole of life and have a powerful influence upon virtue and the happy life, since people choose what is pleasant and avoid what is painful. Ã¢â¬â¢ Aristot le did realise however, that one personÃ¢â¬â¢s view of happiness might be very different from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s view of happiness. He distinguished between three types of pleasure/happiness: 1. Pleasure seekers: these are people who are driven by their basic desires and simply live from one pleasurable experience to the next: e. . eating good food, sleeping, drinking and having sex. 2. Seekers of honour: Aristotle saw politicians as seekers of honour. These are people who try to find solutions to important problems and get a sense of honour from doing that. 3. Those who love contemplation: these are philosophers and thinkers. Aristotle believed that the lowest forms of happiness are those found by the pleasure seekers. He wrote: Ã¢â¬ËThe utter servility of the masses comes out in their preference for a bovine [animalistic] existence. Ã¢â¬â¢ For Aristotle, the distinguishing feature of humans is their ability to reason, which they get from their soul. In plants, the anima or soul produces the search for nourishment and food, and in animals, the anima produces the ability to move. Humans have these two characteristics, but also the ability to reason. Aristotle called humans Ã¢â¬Ërational animalsÃ¢â¬â¢. It is for this reason that he believed we should strive to achieve something better with our lives than simply living from pleasure to pleasure. Happiness for Aristotle is an activity of the soul, i. e. the correct and full use of the soul can help us to discover happiness. Aristotle divided the soul up into two parts, the rational part and the irrational part. Both parts of the soul are then divided in two. The rational part contains the calculative and scientific parts. The scientific part of the soul holds types of knowledge that are factual and not up for debate: in other words, a priori knowledge. The calculative part does what it says; it calculates. It weighs up knowledge and helps us to arrive at decisions. The irrational part of the soul contains the desiderative part and the vegetative part. The vegetative part of the soul is concerned with basic needs that keep us alive and is effectively our survival instinct. The desiderative part helps us to distinguish between needs and wants. For Aristotle, a correctly functioning soul uses all of the parts well and properly. Vardy and Grosch use the example of a fruitcake to demonstrate this. If the vegetative part recognises that I am hungry, it tells me to eat. The desiderative part may desire cake to alleviate the hunger: something I want, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily need. The scientific part of my soul knows that fruit is better for me than cake and the calculative part, weighing up the evidence, comes up with the suggestion of fruitcake. Thus all the parts of my soul have been used in the decision. This is very important, as only a soul that functions correctly can find happiness, or eudaemonia. The Virtues Now that we have seen the basic ideas that Aristotle had about humans and how they function, we can look at the virtues. Aristotle believed that the correct way to live, was to follow something called the doctrine of the mean, the middle way or temperance. Aristotle realised that human behaviour is made up of extremes which he called vices of excess and vices of deficiency. You read "Virtue Ethics Notes" in category "Papers" Aristotle argued that the best course of action falls between the two and that this is the virtue. For example, if courage is the virtue, then cowardice is the vice of deficiency and foolhardiness is the vice of excess. Aristotle believed that there are two types of virtue: intellectual virtues and moral virtues. The intellectual virtues are learned through instruction i. e. they are taught. The moral virtues are developed through habit. The intellectual virtues are developed in the rational part of the soul and the moral virtues are developed in the irrational part of the soul. There are 9 intellectual virtues, as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Art or technical skill (techne) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scientific knowledge (episteme) Prudence or practical wisdom (phronesis) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intelligence or intuition (nous) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wisdom (sophia) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Resourcefulness or good deliberation (eubolia) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding (sunesis) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Judgement (gnome) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cleverness (deinotes) The 12 moral virtues, with their corresponding vices are set out in the table below. |Vice of deficiency |Virtue |Vice of excess | |Cowa rdice |Courage |Rashness | |Insensibility Temperance |Intemperance | |Illiberality |Liberality |Prodigality | |Pettiness |Munificence |Vulgarity | |Humble-mindedness |High-mindedness |Vaingloriousness | |Want of ambition |Right ambition |Over-ambition | |Spiritlessness |Good temper |Irascibility | |Surliness |Friendliness/civility |Obsequiousness | |Sarcasm |Sincerity |Boastfulness | |Boorishness |Wittiness |Buffoonery | |Shamelessness |Modesty |Bashfulness | |Callousness |Just resentment |Spitefulness | Aristotle recognised that not all people will attain to the virtues, but he did argue that a balance between the intellectual and moral virtues was essential. Practising the moral virtues alone, might result in conformity and being an automaton. Aristotle urged us to think about the life we lead too. He believed that the virtues were essential to a harmonious society. Aristotle believed that the overall well being of the group is much more important than the well being of individuals alone and argued that it is through encouraging the practise of the virtues that society will be a harmonious place. It is friendship that is the main aim of the moral life, for without friendship, justice is meaningless. Aristotle was not a deep believer in the after-life. Aristotle was a man who valued empirical (sense) evidence above all else and believed that if anything lived on, it would be our memories. Because of this, the point of being virtuous is not to achieve unity with God, or win a place in heaven, it is good because it is the right way to live. Modern virtue ethics In 1958, Elizabeth Anscombe wrote an essay entitled Ã¢â¬ËModern Moral PhilosophyÃ¢â¬â¢. In this essay, she argued that deontological ethics had become outdated. The existence of God had a considerable shadow cast over it and she argued that the religious basis to ethics and morality (i. e. that God gives rules to humans to follow and they must follow them if they wish to get to heaven) could no longer be trusted. She also felt that ethics had moved away from a focus on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character and had instead become obsessed with lots of rules and laws. Anscombe argued that it was time for a return of virtue ethics. Alasdair MacIntyre In 1981, Alasdair MacIntyre (left) wrote a book called Ã¢â¬ËAfter VirtueÃ¢â¬â¢ in which he argued that we should give serious consideration to AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. In his book, he traced the history of virtue ethics and tried to establish a system of virtue ethics for the modern age. His basic complaint was that modern ethics put too much emphasis on reason and not enough stress on people, their characters and the contexts of their lives. MacIntyre noticed that as societies developed 2,500 years ago, so different virtues developed too. In the age of Homer (who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey), the following virtues were paramount; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Physical strength Ã¢â¬ ¢ Courage Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cunning Ã¢â¬ ¢ Friendship These are known as the Homeric Virtues. As cities (the polis) developed, life slowly became more civilized. Aristotle developed his theory of virtues for the city of Athens and his virtues became known as the Athenian Virtues. They were (briefly) as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Courage Ã¢â¬ ¢ Friendship Ã¢â¬ ¢ Justice: retributive (getting what you deserve) and distributive (making sure that the goods of society are fairly distributed) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Temperance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wisdom The emphasis on strength and cunning, needed in time of war, was gone. MacIntyre argued that the Athenian virtues of Aristotle were the most complete. For MacIntyre, the problems with ethics began during the Enlightenment, a period of time during the 17th and 18th Centuries when Science became more important for discovering truth. It was thought that a single, rational cause for morality could be discovered and thinkers such as Hume and Kant attempted to do this. MacIntyre realised that whilst the theorists in universities were trying to work morality out, society still needed virtuous people in everyday life; people who run jumble sales to raise money for the local hospital for example. MacIntyre argued that despite the theories of people like Kant and Hume, the virtues have lived on. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, society depends for its very existence upon people who exhibit the virtues. MacIntyre argued that living a virtuous life depended upon getting into the habit of being moral and of striving towards being virtuous. He argued that this can give life an overall purpose and meaning. The virtues for MacIntyre, are any human quality which helps us to achieve the Ã¢â¬ËgoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ in life. MacIntyreÃ¢â¬â¢s virtues are as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Courage: courage is very important as it helps us to face up to challenges that may come our way. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Justice: this is a very important virtue. Justice is fairness and it is the art of giving someone what they deserve or merit. To be unjust is to be unfair. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Temperance: this prevents us from acting rashly; losing our temper for example. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wisdom: this is not knowledge: it is the ability to know how to act in the right way in particular situations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Industriousness: hard work. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hope: being optimistic. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Patience. Underneath the virtues must be the good will of the person. To be virtuous, one must desire to do virtuous things, rather than do them involuntarily. An act is not virtuous if it is not intended. MacIntyre also used the idea of internal and external goods, a version of which is seen in Natural Law. An internal good is specific to the activity itself; for example, giving money to charity results in helping others and developing a sense of satisfaction. An external good, is a good that is not specific to the act. For example, when giving to charity, your example may inspire others to do the same. MacIntyre also warned that being virtuous does not prevent you from being open to vices. He gives the example of a great violinist who could be vicious, or a chess player who could be mean spirited. The vices would prevent these people from achieving maximum virtue. MacIntyre suggests that the three most important virtues are justice, courage and honesty. We can only achieve moral excellence through practising these three. They are core virtues that help to prevent organisations and institutions from becoming morally corrupt. It is largely through institutions that traditions, cultures and morality spread: if these institutions are corrupt, then vices become widespread. Philippa Foot Philippa Foot has also put together a modern version of virtue ethics. She has argued that the wise person directs their will to what is good and a good is something that is both intrinsically and extrinsically good (see MacIntyre above). The wise, or virtuous person also knows that there are particular ways of obtaining certain goods and it is these ways of obtaining goods that are the virtues. She also argues that virtues and skills are different things. We may make a deliberate mistake with a skill, but not damage our character or reputation; for example, a teacher who deliberately misspells a word to draw their students attention to it. However, if you deliberately act in a non-virtuous way, your reputation and character will suffer. Foot also characterises virtues as Ã¢â¬ËcorrectivesÃ¢â¬â¢. She likens humans to planks of wood that are left out to season. Wood naturally warps and changes shape and it needs continuous straightening to make it straight. Virtues do the same for the human character: they continually straighten us out so that eventually we can, through habit, become virtuous. Evaluation of virtue ethics argued that justice and truthfulness are not a middle way, but are ethical absolutes that we have a duty to follow. Grotius argued that there are absolute moral laws that we have a duty to obey and that can be worked out by anyone of sufficient intelligence. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, X 1172a.  Ibid: I, 1095b. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â The five primary intellectual virtues The four secondary intellectual virtues How to cite Virtue Ethics Notes, Papers
Question: Discuss about the Public Policy for Pharmaceutical Industry. Answer: Introduction: The use of professional judgment in the adoption of policies and measurements are vital for preparation of the financial statement. It is important to exercise a degree of caution for determining the actual assets and income which are not overstated whereas expenses and liabilities are not understated (Almandoz and Tilcsik 2015). Generally, an accounting transaction is recognized when an entity obtains services or goods. In other words, the transaction is recognized as an expense or liability when cash is being settled. However the profit often overstated when entity finds difficult to encounter the possible obligations whose existence may be observed from the unfavorable economic conditions but their amount cannot be measured reliably or settlement is not probable. Thus contingent liabilities are not recognized which may be the potential cause of the overstated profits because an accountant failed to take into account the probable expenses while recording the list of operational act ivities. By overstating inventory, on the other hand, the company can inflate the cost of inventory (Devi 2015). This indicates that the actual cost is below the ascertained value. While perpetual inventory method, it is very difficult to monitor the tracking movements and thus the losses in inventory does not detect. Thus, the company may suffer overstating inventory at the end of the reporting period by the associated cost of lost inventory. There are other ways way in which the potential future environment impact of production and thus, overstate inventory leads to profits being overstated. Based on the given approach, the overstating of the profits is often done in order to compensate with the future liabilities, which may need to be sorted for the company. Hence, in this case the overstating of the profit of the company has been directly seen with the relevance of the accounting of the future liabilities. The different type of the other factors, which has led to the overstating of the profit, has been evident in form of the liabilities, which might occur from the future warranty costs. The main implication on the overstating of the profits of the company has been seen in form of taking into account the full cost related to the various types of the operational activities of the business. The rationale for this has been further seen in terms of the benefits related to cover the potential environmental impact (Rassier 2016). It might be possible that due to economic crisis there, the company is facing production crunch, hence the overstatement of the profits will act as a lucrative option for the investors even during the situation of economic downturn. In several cases, the companies are seen to be negligent on part of taking into account the various types of the cost related to the operational activities. This is also directly relevant to the different types of the manufacturing and the production activities taken by the company. As the profits are overstated the company will be automatically be able to compensate for the inclusion of these costs (Lexchin 2016). It is noteworthy to denote that if the corporation overstates its profit it will also lead to the overstatement of gross profit and net income. Along with this, current assets, retained earnings, total assets and equity of stockholder are all related to the financial ratios. Overstatement of the gross profit and net income leads to the overstatement of the inventory and then not enough of the cost of goods sold are available. It is worth mentioning that the higher the amount of the net income represents that the reported amount of retained earnings and stockholders equity is also high (Deegan 2013). Therefore, the overstated amount of the inventory after the end of the financial year turns into the beginning inventory in the following financial year. In the following year the period of cost of goods sold will also be high and will ultimately lead to lower reporting of the gross profit and net income. However, the retained earnings and the other balance sheet amounts will be corrected at the end of the second reporting period. When it is found that the reported amount is overstated it represents that the financial amount reported is incorrect and the amount reported by the company is more than the true or correct amount (Nobes 2014). It is important to denote that management teams often take accounting estimates that are subjected to several incentives. This could lead them to overstatement of the financial performance as an overstated financial accounting statement could help in avoiding the negative consequences of reporting poor performance. References Almandoz, J. and Tilcsik, A., 2015. When experts become liabilities: Domain experts on boards and organizational failure. Academy of Management Journal, pp.amj-2013. Deegan, C., 2013.Financial accounting theory. McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Devi, R.U., 2015. Creative accounting practices-Its Pros Cons: An analysis. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering, 5(1), pp.40-52. Lexchin, J., 2016.Private Profits versus Public Policy: The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Canadian State. University of Toronto Press. Nobes, C., 2014.International Classification of Financial Reporting 3e. Routledge. Rassier, D.G., 2016. Fair Value Accounting and Measures of US Corporate Profits for Financial Institutions.
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The term Ã¢â¬Å"Manifest DestinyÃ¢â¬ was the belief that the expansion of the U. S. was ordained by God to spread over the entire continent, but also many just saw it as a slogan to promote expansion. The term first came about by a man named John L. OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan in 1845, who expressed the idea that Americans had the God-given right to settle all of North America. This term was used widely by the people who supported the campaign of annexing western territory but also the people who wanted to expand to the Pacific. In John L. OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"AnnexationÃ¢â¬ he exclaims, . he right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Was Manifest Destiny a Significant Component in the Making of America? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page (1) Once the concept had been given the name Manifest Destiny it became widely used, appearing in newspapers, debates, paintings and advertisements. OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force. He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U. S. government or the involvement of the military. OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan did not originate the idea of Manifest Destiny, while his phrase provided a useful label for ideas which had become particularly popular during the 1840s, the ideas themselves were not new. Ideas from manifest destiny were emphasized in the Monroe Doctrine, and also the colonial times as Americans tried to break away from their mother country. The Monroe Doctrine of 1822 stated that Britain couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t settle anywhere in the western hemisphere, hence the reason why America wanted to place keeps on the land around them. The ideas were also developed in colonial times when the colonists were trying to break free from Britain, and the revolution added the sense of nationalism that this concept illustrated. John L. OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s exert from his article definlitley opened the idea to Americans more so than ever. It became the leading light for westward expansion and during this period in history thousands of people packed up their families and belongings and moved west to new territories to gain land and to make a fortune. The term Manifest Destiny conveyed the idea that the rightful destiny of the US included imperialistic expansion. In 1836, the Republic of Texas declared independence from Mexico and, after the Texas Revolution, sought to join the United States as a new state. The annexation of Texas became a big deal, and with the idea of nationalism and the Americans Ã¢â¬Å"destinyÃ¢â¬ they were able to accomplish annexation, but Mexico refused to see them as independent. The annexation of Texas was controversial, however, since it would add another slave state to the Union. Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren declined TexasÃ¢â¬â¢s offer to join the United States in part because the slavery issue threatened to divide the Democratic Party. Although elected by a very slim margin, Polk proceeded as if his victory had been a mandate for expansion. As he came to office congress had already approved the annexation of the area of Texas. Polk decided to occupy a portion of Texas which was also claimed by Mexico, paving the way for the outbreak of the Mexican-American War on April 24, 1846. After success on the battlefield some Americans came up with the idea Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ to try and annex all of Mexico into the country because it would ensure future peace in the region. This led to controversy because the argument was very two-sided. Many Americans were racist and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want any non-Anglo Saxon people apart of their country, but also because it forced a whole country to be a part of the U. S. which imposed their will as people. The controversy was eventually ended by the Mexican Cession, which added the territories of California and New Mexico to the United States, both more sparsely populated than the rest of Mexico. Manifest Destiny played its most important role in the Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain. The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 had provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country, and thousands of Americans migrated there in the 1840s over the Oregon Trail. The vast majority of men and women who crossed the continent on the Oregon Trail in the mid-1800s did so for personal reasons. They were looking for a less crowded and more fertile place to farm, or they planned to make money selling trade goods. . Americans settled in Oregon Country as early as 1831 with their wagons and pride they traveled two thousand miles through prairie, desert, and mountain terrain just to reach this new land. They developed this sense that the land there had a better hope, so many dropped everything they had to start a future in the Oregon Country. The idea of manifest destiny played a huge role in the 1844 election, James K. Polk vs. Henry Clay. The democratic candidate, James Polk, favored expansion he wanted to add California, New Mexico, Texas, and Oregon to the United States. Oregon was a big issue during his campaign. During this time the United States shared occupation of Oregon with Great Britain. In his campaign, Polk pushed for taking over all of this territory with his slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Fifty-four forty or fight! Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Reoccupation of Oregon! Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"All the way to the 54Ã¢â¬â¢40! Ã¢â¬ (2) Instead of fighting for the territory, he settled for half. After Polk was elected President in 1844 the boundary between British Canada and the United States was permanently extended along the 49th parallel all the way to the Pacific Coast. This election definitely contributed to the democratic institutions of manifest destiny and how the idea not only appealed to the people but politics too. Americans settled in Oregon Country as early as 1831 with their wagons and pride they traveled two thousand miles through prairie, desert, and mountain terrain just to reach this new land. They certainly had manifest destiny on their minds while traveling that great distance. Around the same time a man by the name of John Fremont decided to lead an expedition into the area of California to survey the land. He was sent to map the west coast for the U. S. army, but he was accused of encouraging American settlers to revolt against the Mexican citizens so he was told to leave the territory. Four days before the United States declared war on Mexico, Fremont received information that the Mexican military commander was going to order all American settlers to leave California, so he went back to California to let the American settlers know. On June 14, a group of twenty men moved on Sonoma, captured General Vallejo and declared California a republic with the raising of the Bear Flag, hence the name of the Bear Flag revolt. When U. S. forces arrived in early July, Fremont organized the Bear Flag revolters into a military-like group and worked to complete the conquest of California. On January 13, 1847, Fremont received the final surrender of the Californios(descendants of the Spanish and Mexican conquerors who had once ruled California) with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga. Fremonts activities in California were the expression of the idea of Manifest Destiny. Through his explorations and reports, he helped the U. S. develop interest in settling the West. By encouraging settlers to revolt against the Mexican authorities, Fremont sought to pave the way for the annexation of California by the United States, and amped up the drive of the Americans to settle the west. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, many expansionists decided to take it upon themselves to look for more land to settle and call theirs. Without official government support, the most extreme advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to military filibustering. Filibustering was the act of a person who engages in a private military action in a foreign country. Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late 1840s and early 1850s were emphasized by the U. S. press, and became very important to Polk. The United States had long been interested in acquiring Cuba from the declining Spanish Empire. As with Texas, Oregon, and California, American policy makers were concerned that Cuba would fall into British hands, which would cause a threat to the interests of the United States. Polk was interested but his attempts at getting the island of Cuba failed. Filibusters like William Walker continued to catch headlines in the late 1850s, but with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1860 the idea of expansion began to focus on that dealing with the north and south. Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war, but it had to do with the slavery. As the Civil War came to a close and reconstruction took its toll, along with the close of the frontier Americans became land hungry for places outside of the United States. America tried to gain land in Venezuela, Cuba, Chile, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands. America also had already purchased Alaska from Russia and was able to acquire Hawaii as well. In 1898, after the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana, Cuba, the United States ntervened on the side of the Cubans who were fighting the Spanish Empire, beginning the SpanishÃ¢â¬âAmerican War. Although advocates of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s had called for the annexation of Cuba, the Teller Amendment, passed by the U. S. Senate before the war, proclaimed Cuba free and independent and disclaimed any U. S. intention to annex the island. After the war, the Platt Amendment (1902) established C uba as a future colony of the United States. Unlike Cuba, the United States did annex Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the war with Spain. The acquisition of these islands marked a new chapter in U. S. history. Traditionally, territories were acquired by the United States inside of the borders but now theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve acquired land outside expanding further than just west. Although the idea of Manifest Destiny died down a bit after the 19th century some Americans tried to continue the slogan throughout history. People like Woodrow Wilson, attempted to redefine both Manifest Destiny and Americas mission on a broader, worldwide scale. Wilson led the United States into World War I with the argument that The world must be made safe for democracy. (3) In his 1920 message to Congress after the war, Wilson stated: Ã¢â¬Å"I think we all realize that the day has come when Democracy is being put upon its final test. The Old World is just now suffering from a wanton rejection of the principle of democracy and a substitution of the principle of autocracy as asserted in the name, but without the authority and sanction, of the multitud e. This is the time of all others when Democracy should prove its purity and its spiritual power to prevail. It is surely the manifest destiny of the United States to lead in the attempt to make this spirit prevail. (4)Wilson wanted the American people to realize how much manifest destiny affected them as a whole but also the democratic institutions involved with the concept as well. To some, Manifest Destiny was based on the idea that America had a divine providence. It had a future that was destined by God to expand its borders, with no limit to area or country. All the traveling and expansion were part of the spirit of Manifest Destiny, a belief that it was Gods will that Americans spread over the entire continent, and to control and populate the country as they see it. Many expansionists conceived God as having the power to sustain and guide human destiny. It was white mans burden to conquer and Christianize the land (5), meaning its affiliation with God gave people the notion to do so. For example, the idea that the Puritan notion of establishing a city on a hill(6) was eventually turned into Manifest Destiny, a religious destiny. These concepts contributed to the big bowl of ideas created by manifest destiny. There is much debate on whether Manifest Destiny played an important role in American history and whether it actually helped America or made matters worse. Some objections to the idea could be the treatment of Indians, and other native people to an area America tried to acquire, but also the amped up egotistical and self-interested attitude it gave many Americans. For example, during the settling of the frontier Indians were treated very badly. They were forced out of their original land and place in Indian reserves, under the Indian Removal Act. The Americans treated the Indians as if they were of lesser value than them. They massacred villages, killed many men, women, and children, and lied to the Indians just to acquire their land. Americans tried to assimilate them into their society, by forcing them to learn Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ customs and language but also how to be civil, basically stripping them from all of their customs and traditions. An Indian chief exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Spirit raised both the white man and the Indian. I think he raised the Indian first. He raised me in this land, it belongs to me. The white man was raised over the great waters, and his land is over there. Since they crossed the sea, I have given them room. There are now white people all about me. I have but a small spot of land left. The Great Spirit told me to keep it. (7)He expresses the great deal of loss him and the rest of the Indians had to go through because of the Americans and their Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ to the land. This also was a problem during the period where America tried to settle California and the Californios were killed right on the spot if they did anything to protect their land. Also during the beginning of the slogan many Whigs, or a member of a U. S. political party formed in opposition to the Democratic Party and favored high tariffs and a weak presidency, condemned the idea of manifest destiny stating that the moves for expansion were unprincipled and made the Americans look greedy. Overall these ideas contributed to the side of manifest destiny that is often overlooked, but influenced American history greatly. Manifest Destiny definitely played an important role throughout history. It controlled Americas destiny and was responsible for mans travels throughout history. With this said, America would not be America without the great idea of Manifest Destiny. The philosophy that was built off of manifest destiny gave Americans the drive and force that expansionists everywhere used to justify territorial growth. Some used the idea of Manifest Destiny as a political philosophy stressing democratic institution and social stability, while others used it as a simple reason to explore new lands, or that it was GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan. Manifest Destiny was responsible for creating American history. Without it, American territory would be as big as the property surrounding its first settlement. It was the movement responsible for American Expansion. Because of the idea of Manifest Destiny, Americas drive to explore and conquer new lands will never die.